Canada's Military Manual Exposed To Target Mohawks

Updated April 2, 2007
By Brenda Norrell
Human Rights Editor
U.N. OBSERVER & International Report

The Canadian military's draft counterinsurgency manual exposes how the so-called "war on terror" is a mask to authorize torture and murders, that ultimately profit corporations and profiteering politicians.

With a copy of the draft manual, the Globe and Mail reported, "Radical natives are listed in the Canadian army’s counterinsurgency manual as a potential military opponent, lumping aboriginals in with the Tamil Tigers, Hezbollah and the Islamic Jihad.

"Caught in the act by the media, and exposed by Mohawk Nation News, the Canadian government is now backpedaling.

The Canadian government now says Aboriginal organizations won't be included as security threats like the Hezbollah and Islamic Jihad in a new counterinsurgency manual.

However, the Globe and Mail reported Saturday that the military draft manual recommends deception, ambushes and the killing of insurgents, which included Mohawks.

Canada's draft counterinsurgency manual reflects the tactics of the counterinsurgency manual used by the United States' School of the Americas for decades in Central and South America. As in Canada, Indigenous Peoples in the south were fighting for survival, and to retain their land, water and resources. Corporations acted with impunity and carried out the campaign of genocide.

Indigenous Peoples were raped, tortured, murdered and disappeared by the paramilitaries and Latin leaders trained by the School of the Americas. Renamed the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security, protesters continue to be arrested each year at the Fort Benning, Georgia site. In violation of the Geneva Conventions, the U.S. secret system of torture and disappearances continues at secret international prisons and Guantanamo Bay.

Mohawk Nation News: Aboriginals Listed As Terrorists And Insurgents Says Fontaine
April 2, 2007 - by Joseph Quesnel
Canada First Perspective

A national Aboriginal leader is asking Ottawa to ensure that Aboriginal groups are removed from a federal National Defense document which lists militant Aboriginal groups alongside other radical groups.

Assembly of First Nations National Chief Phil Fontaine today demanded that the federal government immediately remove any reference to First Nations in a Department of National Defense draft counter-insurgency manual listing international terrorist threats.

According to a report by The Globe and Mail, radical Native American organizations such as the Mohawk Warriors Society are listed in the training manual as insurgents, alongside other insurgent groups.

"Any reference to First Nations people as possible insurgents or terrorists is a direct attack on us - it demonizes us, it threatens our safety and security and attempts to criminalize our legitimate right to live our lives like all other Canadians do. Just being referenced in such a document compromises our freedom to travel across borders, have unimpeded telephone and internet communications, raise money, and protest against injustices to our people," stated AFN National Chief Phil Fontaine.

"I am calling upon Prime Minister Stephen Harper to immediately and without reservation, reject and remove any references to First Nations from all versions of the training manual."

"It is shocking and outrageous to learn that the Canadian military would consider First Nations people as insurgents or equate us to Hezbollah or Hamas. Not only is there not a shred of evidence to make this link, First Nations have always served Canada well by their contributions to the Canadian services. Such absurd allegations only serve to undermine respect for the military and lead us to believe we will not be able to rely on their protection the way other Canadians do."

Fontaine also pointed out that the revelation of Aboriginal groups within the training manual also comes after the federal government said that they aggressively audit and possibly cut off funding provided to First Nations organizations who participate in, or support the National Day of Action on June 29th, which the federal government has said may include illegal blockades and other activities.

"Taken with the report that we are included in the list of insurgent organisations in the military's manual, raises serious questions about the federal government's respect for freedom of speech and freedom of assembly for First Nations people. It appears that they want to silence us," said Fontaine, in the release.

"The proposed June 29th National Day of Action is intended to bring focus to and generate awareness of the deplorable social - economic status of First Nations peoples in this country.

Too often, First Nations poverty and the injustices suffered by our communities are not well understood. We aim to begin changing that by reaching out to Canadians and by putting our issues and our solutions front and center. First Nations people are people of integrity and we will abide by the rule of law while exercising our right to free speech," said the National Chief.

The Assembly of First Nations is the national organization which purports to represent First Nations citizens in Canada.

Final Version of Terror Report Will Not Refer To Natives
BILL CURRY, Globe and Mail, April 2nd, 2007
OTTAWA -- References to radical natives in the Canadian army's counterinsurgency manual will not appear in the final version of the document, Defence Minister Gordon O'Connor has announced.

The use of "radical Native American organizations" as an example of insurgents in a draft version of the manual has incensed native leaders, who viewed the wording as a threat to their political rights to protest.

Assembly of First Nations National Chief Phil Fontaine said yesterday the inclusion of natives in the manual could threaten the ability of Canadian natives to travel internationally.

But in a written statement, Mr. O'Connor explained that the document was simply making reference to past examples of insurgencies and was not meant to suggest that natives in Canada are a potential military target.

"The draft counterinsurgency manual was produced in September, 2005, under the previous government. The draft manual is not a final document, and continues to evolve and be updated," the statement from the minister said.

"The final version will not contain references to any current aboriginal organizations. The draft manual does not make comparisons between aboriginal groups and any insurgent groups," he stated.

"The draft manual does not state that any other particular group is a potential target of the Canadian military . . . What the draft document does do is use examples of past insurgencies from Canada and abroad to illustrate how some groups have resorted to violence or the threat of violence in the past in order to gain political influence or concessions."

The minister's office said the draft manual has been used to train Canadian soldiers for the mission in Afghanistan. The reference to natives will be removed because the manual is only for use in relation to that mission, a spokeswoman said.

The Globe published a report on the manual on Saturday. The report noted that the Mohawk Warrior Society was involved in the 1990 Oka crisis in Quebec, which spawned a 78-day confrontation with police and the military that left a police officer dead.

The draft manual's 164 pages outline a wide range of measures that could be used to assess, manage and defeat an insurgency.

On the 11th page, under the heading "Overview of insurgencies and counter-insurgencies," a paragraph is highlighted, which states: "The rise of radical Native American organizations, such as the Mohawk Warrior Society, can be viewed as insurgencies with specific and limited aims. Although they do not seek complete control of the federal government, they do seek particular political concessions in their relationship with national governments and control (either overt or covert) of political affairs at a local/reserve ("First Nation") level, through the threat of, or use of, violence."

There is no other mention of natives in the manual, nor does the manual add further context as to why that paragraph is included. Five pages later, the manual gives other examples of insurgents, listing Hamas, Islamic Jihad, Hezbollah and the Tamil Tigers.

Mr. Fontaine issued a statement yesterday describing the mention of radical natives as "shocking".

DND Dismisses Report On Counterinsurgency Manual
CRFA Radio
Josh Pringle Saturday, March 31, 2007

A statement from the office of Defence Minister Gordon O'Connor says the "final version will not contain references to any current aboriginal organizations."

O'Connor's office calls a manual for the Canadian Military a draft only.The Globe and Mail says the draft manual lists "radical Native American Organizations" as potential opponents.
The draft version puts the radical Canadian aboriginals among security threats such as Hezbollah and Islamic Jihad. The document outlines measures the military might use to fight insurgents at home and abroad.

The Defence Department calls the report "speculative, sensational and inaccurate."

Western Shoshone Defense Project
P.O. Box 211308
Crescent Valley, NV 89821
775-468-0237 (fax)

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